The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which is part of canids similar to wolves and is the most abundant Carnivore. The existing grey dog and wolf are sister type, as modern wolves are not closely related to wolves that have been domesticated for the first time, implying that the dog\’s direct ancestor is extinct. The dog was the first species to be domesticated and was selectively created for millennia for various behaviors, sensory abilities, and physical attributes.
Its long association with humans has led dogs to be exceptionally in tune with human behavior and are able to thrive in a starchy diet that would be inappropriate for other canid species. Dogs vary widely in shape, size and colors. They play many roles for humans, such as hunting, grazing, traction charges, protection, police and military assistance, the company, and, more recently, helping people with disabilities and therapeutic roles. This influence on human society gave them the sobriquet of man\’s best friend.
Canine intelligence is the dog\’s ability to perceive information and retain it as knowledge to apply to solve problems. Dogs were shown to learn from inference. A study with Rico showed that he knew the labels of more than 200 different items. He deduced the names of the new elements by excluding learning and correctly retrieved the new elements immediately and also 4 weeks after the initial exposure. Dogs have advanced memory skills. One study documented the learning and memory capabilities of a border collie, “Chaser”, who had learned the names and could associate more than 1,000 words by verbal mandate. Dogs are able to read and react appropriately to the language of the human body, such as gesticular and aiming, and understand human voice commands, although a 2018 study on canine cognitive abilities has found that the abilities of the dogs are no longer that of other animals, such as horses, chimpanzees or cats.
Dogs demonstrate a theory of mind going into error. An experimental study showed compelling evidence that Australian din-dins can outperform domestic dogs in solving non-social problems, indicating that domestic dogs may have lost much of their solving skills problems, as it has joined human beings. Another study indicated that after undergoing training to solve a simple handling task, dogs facing an insoluble version of the same problem look at humans while socialized wolves do not. Modern domestic dogs use humans to solve their problems for them.