The history of the world describes the history of mankind as determined by archaeological studies and historical records. Ancient recorded history begins with the invention of writing.
A map (from the Latin term Mappa ) is a visual representation of a region. They are generally two – dimensional representations of a three-dimensional space. The science of designing and making maps is called cartography. Sometimes, cartography focuses on the projection of curved surfaces on flat surfaces, in the process called planning. Maps are an expression of the human need to know and represent your space.
The oldest known maps were found in the ancient city of Çattal Huyulk, in Turkey, and date from around 6204 BC, being drawn on a wall. There are also maps of other ancestral cultures, such as Aztec, Eskimo, Mesopotamian, etc. With the invention of paper, maps began to be drawn on sheets (perhaps from there, almost synonymously, the word letter ), more specifically from the Greek term that designated the papyrus sheets used in making the maps, which was karte. The term letter is usually used to refer to old maps. In the Middle Ages, maps in use in Europe were often centered on Jerusalem, and with the East upwards.
One of the great steps in the evolution of maps is taken in the Age of Discoveries when the areas represented became much larger than before and the need arose to obtain good levels of precision in order to be able to navigate with relative safety.
If the map covers a large area of the Earth\’s surface, so that the curvature of the Earth or the undulation of the geoid can already influence the measurement of distances and the desired accuracy in the representation, a cartographic projection must be chosen. Mathematically, this is a function that transforms polar or geodetic coordinates ( latitude, longitude ) into coordinates of the map plane. This necessarily causes distortion.